How is hexagonal basalt formed

Hexagonal basalt columns are breathtakingly special landscapes in nature, with different scenes around the world, such as the Giant’s Causeway in Ireland and the “Black Falls” in Vatnajökull National Park, Iceland. These hexagonal basalt columns how was it formed?

Hexagonal basalt columns are breathtakingly special landscapes in nature, with different scenes around the world, such as the Giant’s Causeway in Ireland and the “Black Falls” in Vatnajökull National Park, Iceland. These hexagonal basalt columns how was it formed?

How to form is still a mystery, but the view that most people recognize is the cooling theory. We all know that basalt is formed by the cooling of volcanic lava on the surface, but if the cooling rate of each part is not the same, it will lead to unexpected results.

When the magma flows out to the surface, due to the preferential cooling, it first forms laminated basalt. The cooling rate is not the same. These cooled basalts begin to shrink and form a kind of fracture in the interior. The lava behind is perpendicular to the fracture, and finally forms basalt column group, but it is not limited to hexagonal basalt columns, even pentagonal and heptagonal.

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